One of the things I like about blogging is sharing some of the things I’ve learned about cooking and baking, including terms that can sometimes be confusing. I decided to start this glossary to collect some of these words and terms. I’ll add things here as I mention them in my blog and include links to this glossary from the blog entries, and vice versa.
There are a lot of food glossaries out there, and I have no intention of trying to make this one a complete compendium of cooking or baking terms. Rather, I want to use it to collect terms that come up in my blog posts. That said, if there are cooking terms that confuse you, drop me a line. I’ll try to add a definition.
autolyse – the process of allowing bread dough to rest for a short period of time (generally 20 – 30 minutes) after a brief initial mixing. This is usually done after mixing just the flour and water in the recipe, although many modern recipes call for an autolyse after mixing all of the ingredients. The purpose of the autolyse is to allow the flour to become fully hydrated, to begin gluten development, and to develop flavor.
baker’s percentages (or baker’s math) – in professional and artisan bread baking, recipes are conceived in ratios whereby the total flour in the recipe, by weight, is always 100%, and the rest of the ingredients are presented in relation to the flour weight. So, for example, if you are using 1000 grams of flour, and the yeast is given as 3%, then the recipe would require 30 grams of yeast.
bench (or dough) scraper — a flexible plastic or stiff metal rectangle, about 6 inches by 4 inches, used to divide dough and scrape dough remnants from bowls or the work surface.
blind baked crust — pie or tart crust that is partially or completely per-baked before being filled . This is often done when the crust will be filled with pudding or custard to keep the crust from becoming soggy, or where the filling takes less time to bake than the crust.
daube (or beef daube) — a classic French stew made of beef braised in red wine, garlic, root vegetables, and herbs.
fiori di sicilia – literally, “flower of Sicily”, is a flavoring extract with essences of citrus and vanilla. It can be used in place of vanilla and adds a wonderfully subtle flavor to sweet doughs.
French rolling pin — a French rolling pin differs from a “traditional” rolling pin in that the French rolling pin doesn’t have handles. Rather, it is esentially a smooth, solid piece of wood, often tapered at the ends. French rolling pins tend to be favored by pastry chefs, as they enable the chef to roll thin dough more evenly.
herringbone cut – a method for cutting a boule that results in even-sized slices. (Click on link to see a pictoral demonstration.)
hooch — the greyish, brownish liquid that forms on the top of sourdough starter when the starter needs to be fed. Hooch is a result of alcohol production in the starter fermentation process. It can be poured off or stirred back into the starter. If it is poured off, the starter may require slightly more liquid when fed.
mirepoix — known as the “holy trinity” in Creole cooking, mirepoix is a French term for onions, carrots, and celery, the aromatic vegetables used as the base of many soups, stews, stocks, sauces, and other dishes. Mirepoix is commonly sautéed in butter or olive oil, but it can also be roasted, used raw, or cooked with a roux (see below).
mise en place — mise en place (pronounced MEES ahn plahs), literally “put in place” but more commonly translated “everything in place”, is a French cooking term, which simply refers to assembling all of your ingredients and equipment before you begin cooking. You read through your recipe, get out all your ingredients, measure, wash, chop, toast, bring to room temperature, etc., and get all of your pots, pans, bowls, utensils, and other equipment ready.
100% hydration — this term, used with sourdough starters, refers to the amount of water in a starter in relation to the amount of flour, both measured by weight. In baker’s percentages (see entry above), the flour is always 100%, and all other ingredients are measured in reference to the flour. So 100% hydration means that the weight of the water in the starter is equal to the weight of the flour. So, for example, if you feed your starter 50 grams of flour and 50 grams of water, the starter would be 100% hydration.
pain de mie – is a fancy-sounding name for an everyday sandwich bread. Literally, it translates to “bread of crumb”; but most online French-to-English translators will return “sandwich bread” or simply “bread”. Pain de mie can be made with whole grain, but it is usually just a simple, white sandwich bread, often enriched with milk, butter, and sugar. It can be baked in a loaf pan or a Pullman pan (see below).
proofing box – a proofing box (sometimes also called a “proof box”) is sealed space where a baker can control the temperature and humidity in order to proof dough under controlled conditions. Generally, the temperature of a proofing box is kept around 100 degrees F, and the humidity at about 85%. (See how I simulate a proofing box in my microwave oven.)
Pullman pan — so named because it resembles the shape of a Pullman train car, this lidded, rectangular pan bakes a perfect pain de mie loaf (see above). Pullman pans come in many sizes, but a “standard” pan is about 13x4x4 inches and holds about 3 1/2 pounds (42 ounces) of dough.
Roux — a mixture of flour and fat — generally butter or oil — that is cooked until the flour loses its raw flavor and takes on some color. Roux is used as a thickener for sauces, gumbos, and stews.
soaker– in making a soaker, course-ground grains (e.g., cracked wheat, course-ground cornmeal, oats, etc.) are soaked in a small amount of water or milk overnight. This serves to soften and activate the enzymes in the grains, which improves the flavor of bread dramatically.
stretch and fold (or French fold) — an alternative to kneading, in which the dough is patted into a rectangle on a lightly floured board, then gently stretched in each direction. After stretching, the dough is folded, letter style, in from each end and then from the top and bottom. Typically, the baker will give the dough three or four stretch and folds at 30- to 40-minute intervals during the bulk fermentation.
tacky vs. sticky (dough) – in bread baking, the recipe will often say that the dough should be either tacky or sticky. The easiest way to test this is to press your hand onto the dough and then lift it up. If the dough pulls up with your hand and then releases (so your hand comes away clean), the dough is tacky. If you end up with dough stuck to your hand, it’s sticky.
Twitterbake – a group of people baking the same or similar recipes at the same time and Tweeting to one another as they bake.